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Spondylosis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

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Navigating Spondylosis: Key Insights and Treatment Strategies

Spondylosis is a common spine condition that affects millions of people worldwide, often leading to discomfort and a decreased quality of life. Whether you’ve recently been diagnosed with spondylosis or are experiencing unexplained back pain, understanding this condition can help you make informed decisions about your health. In this blog, we will delve into what spondylosis is, its symptoms, causes, and when to seek help from an orthopaedic specialist. We will also explore both surgical and nonsurgical treatment options available for managing this condition.

What is Spondylosis?

Spondylosis is a general term for the age-related degeneration of the spine's discs, joints, and bones. This condition can affect any part of the spine, including the cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-back), and lumbar (lower back) regions. Lumbar spondylosis refers explicitly to the degeneration in the lower back, a common area for age-related spinal changes due to the high stress and movement it endures.

Symptoms of Spondylosis

The symptoms of spondylosis can vary widely depending on the location and severity of the degeneration. Common symptoms include

Back or Neck Pain

Persistent pain in the affected region can range from mild to severe.


Reduced flexibility and stiffness, particularly after periods of inactivity or sleep.

Loss of Balance and Coordination

Loss of balance and coordination can happen in severe cases of spondylosis, especially cervical spondylosis, which affects the spinal cord.

Numbness and Tingling

Sensations of numbness, tingling, or weakness in the limbs when nerve roots are compressed.


Often associated with cervical spondylosis.

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Causes of Spondylosis

Spondylosis primarily results from the natural aging process. As we age, the spine undergoes several changes:

  • Disc Degeneration: The intervertebral discs lose moisture and elasticity, leading to decreased cushioning and increased friction between vertebrae.
  • Bone Spurs: The body may develop bone spurs (osteophytes) in response to joint instability and disc degeneration.
  • Facet Joint Degeneration: The facet joints, which help stabilize the spine, can also degenerate, leading to pain and stiffness.

Other factors that can contribute to the development of spondylosis include:

  • Genetics: A family history of spine conditions can increase the risk.
  • Occupation: Jobs that involve repetitive motions, heavy lifting, or prolonged sitting can exacerbate wear and tear on the spine.
  • Injury: Previous spine injuries can accelerate degenerative changes.
  • Lifestyle: Poor posture, lack of exercise, and obesity can also contribute to spinal degeneration.

When to See an Orthopaedic Specialist

It is essential to consult with an orthopaedic specialist if you experience:

  • Persistent Pain: Chronic back or neck pain that does not improve with rest or over-the-counter medications.
  • Neurological Symptoms: Numbness, tingling, or weakness in your arms or legs.
  • Loss of Function: Difficulty with daily activities, such as walking, bending, or lifting.
  • Bladder or Bowel Dysfunction: Loss of control over bladder or bowel functions can indicate severe nerve compression.

OIBO's Orthopaedic Spine, Back, and Neck Specialists

At OIBO, we believe in the relentless pursuit of better orthopedic care, especially for spine, neck and back issues. Our team consists of multiple world-class, board-certified spine specialists who encounter these problems daily. This hyper-specialization means our patients receive the highest level of care, from treating back pain to managing scoliosis. You can trust our experienced and skilled doctors to provide the expert treatment you need to get back to being yourself.

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Learn more about our spine specialists on our Spine, Back & Neck Speciality page.

Treatment Options for Spondylosis

Treatment for spondylosis aims to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. Depending on the severity and specific needs of the patient, treatment options are categorized into nonsurgical and surgical methods.

Nonsurgical Treatments

  • Physical Therapy: Exercises to strengthen the muscles supporting the spine, improve flexibility, and enhance posture.
  • Medications: Anti-inflammatory drugs, pain relievers, and muscle relaxants to manage pain and inflammation.
  • Lifestyle Modifications: Weight management, ergonomic adjustments, and quitting smoking to reduce stress on the spine.
  • Heat and Cold Therapy: Application of heat or cold packs to reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Corticosteroid Injections: Injections to reduce inflammation and pain in the affected area.

Surgical Treatments

Surgery is typically considered when nonsurgical treatments fail to provide relief or if there is significant nerve compression causing severe symptoms. Common surgical options include:

  • Decompression Surgery: Procedures like laminectomy or foraminotomy to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
  • Spinal Fusion: Fusing two or more vertebrae to stabilize the spine and reduce pain from movement.
  • Artificial Disc Replacement: Replacing a degenerated disc with an artificial one to maintain spine flexibility.

Common Spine Conditions Similar to Spondylosis

Herniated Disc

  • Description: A herniated disc occurs when the soft inner gel of the intervertebral disc protrudes through a tear in the outer layer.
  • Symptoms: Nerve root compression can cause severe back pain, numbness, tingling, or limb weakness.
  • Confusion with Spondylosis: Both conditions can cause back pain and nerve compression symptoms like numbness and tingling. However, herniated disc pain is often more acute and sudden.

Spinal Stenosis

  • Description: Spinal stenosis involves the narrowing of the spinal canal, which can compress the spinal cord or nerve roots.
  • Symptoms: Back pain, leg pain, numbness, weakness, and difficulty walking. Symptoms often worsen with standing and improve with sitting.
  • Confusion with Spondylosis: Both can cause nerve compression and similar symptoms, but spinal stenosis often presents a distinctive improvement in symptoms when sitting down.

Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD)

  • Description: DDD is the wear and tear of intervertebral discs, leading to pain, instability, and reduced disc height.
  • Symptoms: Chronic back pain that can radiate to the hips and legs, stiffness, and decreased range of motion.
  • Confusion with Spondylosis: Both involve disc degeneration, but DDD is more focused on the disc itself, while spondylosis encompasses overall spinal degeneration, including bones and joints.


  • Description: Sciatica is characterized by pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve, from the lower back through the hips and down each leg.
  • Symptoms: Sharp or burning pain, numbness, and tingling radiating from the lower back to the legs.
  • Confusion with Spondylosis: Spondylosis can cause sciatica-like symptoms if the lumbar region is affected and nerve roots are compressed, leading to similar radiating pain.

Facet Joint Syndrome

  • Description: Degeneration or arthritis of the facet joints, which are small stabilizing joints between and behind adjacent vertebrae.
  • Symptoms: Localized pain, especially with twisting or bending movements, and muscle spasms.
  • Confusion with Spondylosis: Both can involve joint degeneration and localized pain, but facet joint syndrome pain is often more mechanical and movement-related.

Osteoarthritis of the Spine

  • Description: A form of arthritis that causes the cartilage in the facet joints to wear down, leading to pain and stiffness.
  • Symptoms: Pain and stiffness in the back, especially in the morning or after periods of inactivity, and possible radiating pain if nerves are affected.
  • Confusion with Spondylosis: Both involve joint degeneration and can present with similar symptoms, but osteoarthritis is specifically related to cartilage wear in the joints.

When to Seek Help

If you experience persistent back or neck pain, neurological symptoms, or a loss of function, it's important to seek professional advice. Accurate diagnosis is key to distinguishing between these conditions and finding the most effective treatment.

While spondylosis is a common and often manageable spine condition, several other conditions can present similar symptoms and may be confused with it. Conditions like herniated discs, spinal stenosis, degenerative disc disease, sciatica, facet joint syndrome, and osteoarthritis of the spine can all cause overlapping symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and nerve-related issues. Consulting an orthopaedic specialist for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is essential for optimal spine health and quality of life.

For more detailed information on spine conditions and treatment options, visit our specialty page or contact us to schedule an appointment with our experienced orthopaedic team.

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Patients deserve personalized, outcome-driven care provided by physicians who genuinely care about them. As medicine has become more corporate and transactional, OrthoNJ prioritizes exceptional doctor/patient relationships. This is why we say we have The Power to Put Patients First.

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We listen. We collaborate. We Serve.

Compassionate Orthopaedic Care In New Jersey

Patients deserve personalized, outcome-driven care provided by physicians who genuinely care about them. As medicine has become more corporate and transactional, OrthoNJ prioritizes exceptional doctor/patient relationships. This is why we say we have The Power to Put Patients First.

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